الرئيسية > قسم الهندسة المدنية > الأبحاث العلمية >review of modern references to resolve the issue of electrical energy use impact on electromagnetic pollution around us
review of modern references to resolve the issue of electrical energy use impact on electromagnetic pollution around us
ملخص البحث:
Electric power is the most common source of power all over the world because it is easily to be generated and transmitted to where it is used. As electricity moves through wires, technical instruments, appliances and equipment, it produces two types of fields, an electric (EFs) and magnetic (MFs) fields, which together are called an electromagnetic fields (EMFs). The EFs result from the strength of the voltage and it is easy to be shielded while the MFs are proportional to the current and it is difficult to be shielded. It is impossible to generate, transmit, distribute and use electrical energy without creating EMFs1. The power networks of any country consist of electrical generation, transmission and distribution facilities. Once electricity is delivered to the user, it continues to produce EMF throughout the wiring systems of offices, homes, schools, factories and other structures depending on the load. The appliances and electrical equipment - connected to these wiring systems - produce also their own EMFs1-2. In workplaces, the sources of EMFs include computers, laboratory devices, cell phones, fax machines, copy machines, fluorescent lights, printers, scanners, telephone switching systems, electrical instruments, motors and other electrical devices. In homes, sources of EMF include electric blankets, electric water heaters, hairdryers, electric shavers, television sets, stereo systems, air conditioners, fluorescent lights, electric can openers, telephone answering machines, cell and portable phones, refrigerators, blenders, portable heaters, clothes washers and dryers, coffee makers, vacuum cleaners, toasters, and microwave ovens1-2. The EMF sources are rapidly growing - as technology grows - that make the problem of EMF pollution be more complicated and more dangerous. This environmental terrorism around us is very difficult for one to be aware of its presence because one can not see it, can not smell it, can not taste it, or can not touch it. Considering that, it is important to understand what causes EMF pollution and what to look for in our everyday tour. Current literatures evidence directly associates EMF – due to the use of electricity - with a lot of diseases starting with headache and ending by cancers. The review of different research results shows that the EMFs exposure should be considered as a possible human carcinogen. On the other hand, some researchers - based on a consistency in epidemiological studies – associate between residence near power lines and the higher risk of leukaemia in children. This means that although the exposure to EMFs may cause cancer but it can not be excluded that it cause cancers1-23. In conclusion, the electromagnetic fields around us that radiated from different sources have environmental effects and hazards of various dangers on human beings, animals and plants1-23, therefore, it is important to assess the values of the electric and magnetic fields in our environments and check against the permissible safety standards limits. The degree of electromagnetic pollution is required to be defined and then the category of the air quality in our environments will be specified. Literatures3-16 shows also that childhood cancer might be associated with exposures to residential and occupational power-frequency – extremely low frequency – fields(ELFs). Numerous studies in many countries have been undertaken of possible increased cancer risks in children and adults from EMF exposures. Special attention has focused on leukemia and on brain tumours, which early reports had suggested might be increased. It has been concluded that ELFs are possibly carcinogenic to humans, based on consistent statistical associations of high level residential magnetic fields with a doubling of risk of childhood leukemia. Some epidemiological studies1-23 has suggested that a link may exist between exposure to power-frequency EMFs and certain types of cancer. Other studies have found no such link. Laboratory researchers are studying how such an association is biologically possible. Several studies17-20 have reported increased cancer risks for jobs involving work around electrical equipment. At this point, there is no scientific consensus about EMFs issue except a general agreement that better information, more data and more studies are needed. More effort, data and studies are also required to resolve the issue of the power-frequency EMF levels of exposure which are safe or unsafe. The public concern is sustained by uneven reporting on this issue by the mass media, by the inability of scientists to guarantee that no risk exists, and by statements from scientists and government officials that more research is needed. The scope of this paper is limited to review the modern references of the significant developments in the electromagnetic pollution due to the use of electricity. This paper also covers modern references available in journals, proceedings and reports. The authors have tried to select publications which - in their viewpoint - make a useful contribution to resolve the issue of electromagnetic energy use impact on electromagnetic pollution around us and its effects on public health.

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