Smart Monitoring System for Distribution Power Grid

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Egypt suffers from an energy crisis caused by the rising demand and both limited generation facilities and falling fuel supply. Also due to the introduction of distributed-generation and Renewable Energy generation, the dynamic operation of the power grid has become more difficult to accurately model. However, using Smart Grids for electric energy management and conservation can narrow the gap between the generation and consumption. This can be achieved through developing a network that is observable, controllable, and automated, both on the generation side as well as the distribution side. Clearly, digital technologies allow the smart grid to fulfill this goal.

All reviewed implementations of the Micro Phasor Measurement Unit (µPMU), for the distribution network, are built around dedicated hardware. Although this simplifies implementation and shortens development time, yet it greatly raises the cost. Since however, the cost of distribution equipment compared to transmission equipment is orders of magnitude less, then what is acceptable to pay for a PMU in a transmission network is not suitable to be paid for a µPMU. For this reason we propose an implementation of µPMU based on a microcontroller/digital signal processor, as this will cause the cost to be very affordable.

 

 

As a proof of concept of the developed µPMUs, measurements of voltage- and current-phasors at optimum places in the selected feeders of the University distribution grid are intended to be made. The optimum placement will be done by using linear regression method or genetic algorithm for binary optimization. Measurements on the selected feeders will generate the state estimation by means of the ladder iterative technique. Two methods for the state estimation are analyzed: weighted least squares and extended Kalman filter.